Test tube baby is a term that refers to a child that is conceived outside the women’s body by a scientific process known as In-Vitro fertilization or IVF treatment. This entire process is done in a laboratory. In this process the eggs are taken from the mother’s ovary and fertilised by the sperms from the father.
The fertilised egg is cultured for 2–6 days and allowed to divided 2-4 times inside a labaratory (hence the name test tube baby) These eggs are then returned back to the mother’s uterus where it can be developed normally, this is done with the intention to establish a successful pregnancy.
Test tube baby procedure has greatly helped women having infertility problems that are untreatable to give birth to healthy babies. Yes, Specialist in TEST TUBE BABY in Indore is TOTAL Fertility Centre under the leadership of Dr. Shivani Joshi.
TOTAL Fertility Solutions has best trained Infertility Specialties. We provide ethical, best test tube baby treatment at an affordable cost.
In vitro fertilization, or IVF, is a type of assisted reproductive technology (ART) that involves fertilizing the eggs with sperm in a laboratory setting. In the natural order of things, the fertilization process takes place inside the human body, in a woman’s fallopian tubes to be precise. The term is derived from Latin, where ‘vitro’ means glass. So ‘in vitro fertilization’ is nothing but ‘in glass fertilization’, which is a reference to the laboratory petri dish in which the fertilization of the egg takes place.
Upon the egg’s fertilization, embryos are formed which are then transferred into the intending mother’s uterus (womb) with the hope that pregnancy is established successfully.
IVF can treat numerous causes of infertility. These include :
1) Women suffering from moderate to severe endometriosis and who do not respond positively to repeated IUI treatment.
2) Partially or fully blocked or damaged fallopian tubes. This can be the result of previous surgery or pelvic inflammatory disease.
3) Severe male factor infertility which can be caused by low sperm count or poor sperm motility. In such cases, IVF-ICSI is recommended where ICSI is an extra step in the IVF procedure.
4) Women of advanced reproductive age. In such cases, time is of the essence and success rate using treatments other than IVF is low.
5) For unexplained fertility issues where the exact cause of infertility has not been established and other treatments have failed.
Thanks to advances in the field, the IVF cost in India has come down significantly. Costs related to the medication, doctor’s fees and the procedure itself have reduced by a huge margin since the time the first test tube baby was delivered in India. The same could also be said for the IVF success rate in India. Worldwide, the success rate of IVF is around 30 to 40 percent and IVF clinics in India offer success rates that are in a similar range.
Contrary to popular perception, IVF is multi step procedure that is performed in the laboratory. Instead, it’s a long process that normally stretches over 4 weeks and involves a succession of interlinked steps.
Each of these steps is explained in detail below.
Step 1: Stimulation of the Ovaries
Here the woman is prescribed fertility drugs, which are nothing but hormones, in order to stimulate the ovaries into producing more eggs than normal. A woman’s ovaries normally produce one egg per ovulation cycle. After administering the drugs, the growth of eggs is continuously monitored using Trans Vaginal ultrasound scans and regular blood tests. This ensures the eggs are harvested at the correct time.
Step 2: Egg Retrieval
Ovulation is the right time to collect eggs from the woman. After she is put under light sedation, an ultrasound probe is introduced into her vagina. The probe relays the exact location of the follicles within the ovaries to an ultrasound monitor. Using a needle attached to a suction device, the eggs, and related fluid are pulled out of each follicle one by one. The process is repeated for the second ovary. Once the procedure is completed rarely the woman may experience some cramping which usually disappears within 24 hours.
In case the woman is not able to produce eggs, donor eggs can be used instead.
Step 3: Insemination & Fertilization
The male partner is asked produce a semen sample on the same day as egg collection. As a precaution, a semen sample is also asked for and cryopreserved at the time of ovaries stimulation (Step 1). In a normal IVF treatment, the best quality eggs and sperm are put together in a chamber that is environmentally controlled. This mixing of the eggs and sperm is known as insemination and within a few hours of starting this process, a sperm manages to enter an egg thus causing fertilization.
Step 4: Embryo Culture
When a fertilized egg divides, the result is an embryo. This embryo is regularly observed to ensure it’s growing correctly. Within 3-5 days, a normal embryo tends to have multiple cells that keep dividing rapidly.
Step 5: Embryo Transfer
Around 3-5 days after retrieving and fertilizing the eggs and after the embryos have attained a certain size, one to three embryos are placed in the woman’s uterus (womb). This is done by inserting a catheter (a fine tube made of plastic) via the cervix and into the uterine cavity using ultrasound guidance. If the embryo manages to attach itself to the inner wall of the uterus (known as implantation) and is able to successfully grow, pregnancy is established.
The process of embryo transfer is quite similar to that of Trans Vaginal Ultrasound and generally involves no pain or use of anesthesia. Multiple embryos can be placed in the womb, which can result in multiple pregnancy involving twins, triplets or even more. The decision about how many embryos can be transferred is based on multiple factors like the woman’s age and previously unsuccessful IVF treatments, if any. If only one embryo is chosen for transfer, the remaining can be frozen, implanted or even donated with the consent of both partners.
Two weeks after the embryo transfer, the woman’s blood is drawn and tested to conclude if pregnancy has been successfully established.
An IVF cycle stretches over a period of 4 weeks. Studies have proved that if couples manage their stress before and during IVF treatment, their chances of success rise significantly.
A woman undergoing the treatment usually undergoes the following things,
Multiple clinic visits
Ingesting or injecting fertility drugs as per the time-table drawn by the doctor
Regular Trans Vaginal Ultrasound scans to observe the follicles
An outpatient procedure involving mild general anesthesia to retrieve the eggs
Another outpatient procedure for transferring the embryo
A daily dose of progesterone either as an oral formulation, an injection or a vaginal gel to facilitate embryo implantation
Waiting for two weeks at least before taking a test to confirm pregnancy
As per SART, which is the Society of Assisted Reproductive Technologies, the IVF success rate is as follows,
1) 41-43% for women under 25 years of age
2) 33-36% for women aged between 35 and 37
3) 23-27% for women aged between 38 and 40
4) 13-18% for women aged above 41
Eggs are retrieved by ultrasound guided needle aspiration under light sedation (in the operating room). This involves no surgical incision and virtually no pain afterward. You leave the hospital with no pain, and come back three to five days later to have the embryo (or embryos) placed very simply into the uterus through the cervix with a tiny catheter. No incision and no anesthetic are needed. An hour later you are able to go home. There is no pain from the procedure.
In order to retrieve these multiple eggs for IVF, the woman must undergo injections with hormones and careful monitoring of her ovaries by ultrasound and her hormone levels by blood tests every day or every other day until she is ready for the egg retrieval. This can at first seem very intimidating, but we will “hold your hand” throughout the whole time and guide you gently through this.
IVF (in vitro fertilization) is the most common form of ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology). If the fallopian tubes are damaged, the sperm quality is poor, 3 to 6 cycles of IUI have failed, poor ovarian reserve, then it is obviously the only acceptable treatment. The eggs are fertilized in our laboratory, and the resulting embryos then are placed into the uterus 2 to 5 days later. This procedure achieves remarkable pregnancies even in women with hopelessly damaged fallopian tubes, seemingly sterile husbands, and even “unexplained” infertility. Our IVF pregnancy rate is over 50% per attempt, regardless of diagnosis, and we accept all of the most difficult cases.